Female reproductive system

External genitalia/ Vulva

Blood supply: Pudendal arteries

Venous: Labial veins – drain to pudendal veins

Nerves: Urogenital plexus

  • Anterior – ilioinguinal and genital branch
  • Posterior – pudendal and posterior cutaneous nerves of thigh

Lymphatics: Superficial inguinal, deep inguinal (glans clitoris)

Clinicals: 

  • Infection of Bartholin’s glands
  • STD
  • Vulvar trauma – disruption of vessels

 

Uterus

Location: Posterosuperior to bladder , anterior to rectum

Supports: 

  • Pelvic diaphragm and urogenital diaphragm – main support
  • Broad ligament – sides of uterus to pelvis
  • Round ligament – uterine horns to labia majora via inguinal canal
  • Ovarian ligament – ovaries to uterus
  • Cardinal ligament – from cervix to lateral pelvic walls, contains uterine vessels
  • Uterosacral ligament – cervix to sacrum
  • Pubocervical ligament – cervix to pubic symphysis

 

Relations:

  • Anterior – Uterovesical pouch, superior surface bladder
  • Posterior – Rectouterine pouch, sigmoid colon
  • Lateral – Broad ligament, uterine vessels

 

Blood supply: Uterine and ovarian arteries

Venous: Uterine venous plexus

Nerves: Pelvic splanchnic and lumbar – inferior hypogastric plexus

Lymphatics: Iliac and sacral

Clinicals:

  • Hysterectomy – surgical removal of uterus
  • Cervical cancer
  • Endometriosis – ectopic endometrial tissue usually at ovaries and uterus ligaments
  • Fibroids – benign tumors, can cause pelvic pain and infertility
  • Endometrial carcinoma – often during or after menopause

 

Vagina

Relations:

  • Anterior – Bladder fundus and urethra
  • Posterior – Rectum, anal canal, rectouterine pouch
  • Lateral – Ureter, uterine artery, levator ani

Blood supply: Uterine and vaginal arteries

Venous: Vaginal veins drain into vaginal venous plexus

Nerves: 

  • Autonomic: Uterovaginal nerve plexus (from inferior hypogastric plexus)
  • Somatic: Deep perineal nerve (from pudendal nerve)

Lymphatics: Iliac and superficial inguinal lymph nodes

Clinicals: 

  • Vaginal infections – candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis (during pregnancy, diabetes, antibiotic treatment)
  • Vaginal fistula – due to long and traumatic childbirth

 

Image result for types of Vaginal fistula


 

Ovaries

Location: Ovarian fossa, posterior wall of broad ligament

Support:

  • Mesovarium – part of broad ligament
  • Suspensory ligament of ovary – contains neurovascular srtuctures
  • Ovarian ligament

Blood supply: Uterine and ovarian arteries

Nerves: 

  • Sympathetic: Ovarian plexus
  • Parasympathetic: Uterine plexus

Lymphatics: Paraaortic nodes

Clinicals:

  • Ovarian cyst
  • Tumors
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome – elevated male hormones, irregular/no periods, body and facial hair

 

Fallopian tubes

 

Image result for parts of fallopian tube

 

Location: Upper border of broad ligament, from uterus to abdominal cavity

Blood supply: Tubal branches of uterine and ovarian arteries

Nerves: 

  • Sympathetic: Ovarian plexus
  • Parasympathetic: Uterine plexus

Lymphatics: Iliac, sacral, aortic nodes

Clinicals: 

  • Ligation of uterine tubes – sterilization
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Salpingitis – inflammation due to bacterial infection

 

These are summarized notes from various sources, mainly TeachMeAnatomy and Wikipedia

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