Lower Limbs

Bones and how to side them

Pelvis:

To side pelvis, look at the ischial tuberosities, obtutator foramen and acetabular notch

Image result for pelvis bone

 

Image result for pelvis bone

 

Image result for pelvis bone gluteal lines

 


Femur:

  • Posterior: Linea aspera, intertrochanteric crest
  • Medial condyle larger and downwards, adductor tubercle on medial side

Image result for femur

NB: Blood supply to head of femur – Nutrient artery, artery in ligamentum teres, medial and lateral circumflex arteries


Patella:

  • Ant: rough surface
  • Post: smooth, lateral facet larger

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Tibia:

  • Anteriorly is tibial tuberosity
  • Medial malleolus
  • Anterior border sharpest

Image result for tibia

 


Fibula:

  • Lateral malleolus
  • Head has styloid process and articular facet on lateral head

 


Bones of foot:

Image result for bones of foot

Clinicals: club foot, flat foot, hammer toe, bunion

 


Talus:

  • On lateral side is a bulge as seen from above
  • Medial surface has comma shaped articular facet
  • Planter surface has deep groove
  • Anterior surface has head

 


Cuboid:

  • Proximally concave
  • Superiorly broad and rough
  • Inferiorly oblique groove and ridge behind the groove
  • Laterally notch
  • Medially oval facet and broad

 


Calcaneus:

  • Posterior part rough and large
  • Lateral surface straight, medial surface concave

Muscle attachment on bones

 

Image result for muscle attachments on pelvis

 

Image result for muscle attachments on femur

Image result for muscle attachments on femur

 

Image result for muscle attachments on tibia

 

Image result for muscle attachments on tibia

 


Arteries

 

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(I) Anastomosis

Trochanteric anastomosis – SLIM

  • Superior gluteal a.
  • Lateral circumflex
  • Inferior gluteal
  • Medial circumflex

Cruciate anastomosis – LIMP

  • Lateral circumflex
  • Inferior gluteal
  • Medial circumflex
  • 1st perforator

Longitudinal anstomosis – perforators

Image result for longitudinal anastomosis femur

(II) Femoral artery – anterior thigh

  • From external iliac artery
  • Between ASIS and pubic symphysis
  • Posterior to inguinal ligament
  • Anterior to psoas major muscle

5 branches – Superficial circumflex iliac, superficial epigastric, superficial external pudendal, deep external pudendal and profunda femoris – lateral and medial circumflex and 1-4 perforators

  • Becomes superficial femoral artery
  • Descends through femoral triangle and adductor canal (in here give descending genicular artery)
  • Through adductor magnus hiatus – becomes popliteal artery

 

(III) Popliteal artery

  • Through adductor hiatus
  • Descends popliteal fossa
  • Between femoral condyles
  • Superficial to popliteas muscle
  • At lower border of popliteas muscle branches into anterior and posterior tibial arteries
  • Other genicular branches: (supply knee joint)

Image result for genicular branches of popliteal artery

Clinicals – muscles compress artery

 

(IV) Anterior tibial artery – anterior leg and lateral leg

  • Origin from lower border of popliteus muscle
  • Passes anteriorly by piercing upper end of interroseous membrane
  • Descends between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus
  • Below inferior extensor retinaculum
  • Forms dorsal pedis artery – which forms deep planter artery

 

(V) Posterior tibial artery – posterior leg

  • Gives off a peroneal artery
  • Runs in posterior compartment of leg between deep and superficial muscles
  • Enters tarsal tunnel behind medial malleolus
  • Divides into medial and lateral planter arteries

 

(VI) Obturator artery – medial thigh


Veins

 

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(I) Great saphenous vein

  • Drains dorsal vein of big toe and dorsal venous arch of foot
  • Infront of medial malleolus
  • runs up medial side of leg
  • Courses anteriorly
  • Pierce cribriform fascia at saphenous opening – joins femoral vein in femoral triangle

 

(II) Small saphenous vein

  • Drains dorsal vein of small toe and dorsal venous arch of foot
  • lateral aspect of foot behind lateral malleolus
  • Runs up posterior aspect of leg
  • Pierces deep fascia between 2 gastrocnemius
  • Drain into popliteal vein

 

Clinicals: 

  1. Varicose veins – incompetent valves of superficial veins
  2. Grafts – Coronary bypass
  3. Venous cutdown – infuse fluid in dehydrated children at medial malleolus


Nerves

 

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(I) Sciatic nerve: L4-S3 – posterior thigh

Course:

  • Passes between imaginary line between PSIS to ischial tuberosity to gluteal tuberosity
  • Through infrapiriformic compartment, greater sciatic foramen
  • Deep to gluteus maximus muscle
  • Descends posterior thigh
  • Superficial to adductor magnus
  • Deep to biceps femoris
  • At apex of popliteal fossa divides into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve

Supplies – posterior thigh

Blood supply – inferior gluteal artery, perforators of profunda femoris

Clinical:

  • Piriformic syndrome
  • Injury by wound/femur dislocation – muscles below knee paralyzed
  • Foot drop – peroneal nerve
  • Sciatic hernia – intestines through GSF

 

(II) Tibial nerve (accompanies posterior tibial artery) – posterior leg

  • Contributes to sural nerve
  • Runs in posterior compartment of leg between deep and superficial muscles
  • Enters tarsal tunnel behind medial malleolus
  • Divides into medial and lateral planter nerves

 

(III) Common peroneal nerve (damaged – foot drop, called policeman’s nerve)

  • Descends obliquely on lateral side of popliteal fossa (along medial margin of biceps femoris)
  • Winds around head of fibula
  • Deep to peroneous longus – divides into deep peroneal nerve and superficial peroneal nerve

 

(IV) Deep peroneal nerve – anterior leg

  • Runs on anterior surface of interroseous membrane with anterior tibial artery
  • At ankle joint, goes through extensor retinaculum, divides into medial and lateral terminal branches

 

(V) Superficial peroneal nerve – lateral leg

  • Lateral compartment of leg
  • Superficial to peroneous brevis
  • Pierces deep fascia to become cutaneous
  • Divides to form medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve

 

(VI) Sural nerve

  • Between medial and lateral gastroscnemius muscles, pierces fascia
  • Descends with small saphenous vein
  • Behind lateral malleolus
  • Runs in lateral foot

 

(VII) Femoral nerve: L2-L4 – anterior thigh

  • From lumbar plexus
  • through psoas major muscle
  • Behind inguinal ligament
  • Through femoral triangle outside sheath
  • Splites into anterior and posterior divisions
  • Terminal branch – saphenous nerve

 

(VIII) Saphenous nerve

  • Descends through adductor canal with femoral artery and vein
  • Pierces fascia, descends with great saphenous vein
  • Goes through flexor retinaculum
  • Runs in medial foot

 

(IX) Obturator nerve – medial thigh


Joints

(I) Hip joint

Classification: multiaxial ball and socket

Articular surfaces: head of femur and acetabulum notch

Stability factors:

  1. Static:Joint capsule, labrum, depth of acetabulum, ligaments (iliofemoral, pubofemoral and ischiofemoral)
  2. Dynamic: gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas and piriformis

Movements: flex, extend, adduct, abduct, medial rotation, lateral rotation

Blood supply: trochanteric anastomosis and nutrient artery

Nerve supply: femoral, obturator, sciatic and superior gluteal

Clinicals: hip joint dislocations, psoas bursa and femoral fractures


(II) Knee joint – largest joint, lined with hyaline cartilage

Classification: synovial modified hinge joint (condylar and sellar (between femur and patella))

Articular surfaces: patella and condyles of femur and tibia

Stability factors:

  1. Static:
  • Joint capsule
  • Pateller retinaculum (extensions of aponeurosis of vasti medialis and lateralis on each side of patella)
  • Intercondylar eminence
  • Pateller ligament (to tibial tuberosity)
  • Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
  • Tibial and fibular collateral (resist valgus instability)
  • Bursa – semimembranosus, suprapateller, popliteal

2. Dynamic: iliotibial tract, semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscle

Movements: flex, extend, medial and lateral rotation

Blood supply: genicular anastomosis and descending genicular artery

Nerve supply: femoral, obturator, tibial and common peroneal

Clinicals:

  • Ligament tears
  • Housemaids bursities – prepateller
  • Clergymans bursities – infrapateller
  • Unhappy triad – medial collatwral, medial menisci and anterior crutiate damaged
  • Pateller dislocation – laterally
  • Q angle:

Image result for q angles of the knee            Image result for q angles of the knee

 

Atypical Q angles

Image result for coxa vara

 

NB: Menisci – fibrocartilage structure. Acts as shock absorber, load transmission, proprioception, produce synovial fluid, protect articular cartilage

Image result for knee meniscus

 

NB: Tibia and fibula have a syndesmosis joint and therefore are immovable and are joint by connective tissue. Even radius and ulna


(III) Ankle joint

Classification: synovial hinge joint

Articular surfaces: tibia, fibula and trochlea of talus

Stability factors:

  1.  Static: deltoid ligament, tibiofibular transverse ligament, anterior and posterior talofibular ligament, calcaneofibular ligament
  2. Dynamic: tendons of anterior and posterior leg muscles

Movements: dorsiflexion and planterflexion

Blood supply: malleolar branches of anterior and posterior tibial arteries and peroneal artery

Nerve supply: tibial and deep peroneal

Clinicals:

  • Ankle sprains – lateral ligament weaker so inversion
  • Potts fracture – eversion, breaks lateral malleolus

 


Others

 

  1. Walking phase:

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2. Venous return in lower limbs: Valves, muscular pumps, venae comitantes

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3. Compartment syndrome:

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4. Extents of gluteal region:

Related image

 


5. Sacrospinous ligament and sacrotuberous ligament form:

(I) Greater sciatic foramen – which piriformis muscle divides into:

  • Suprapiriformic – superior gluteal A,V,N
  • Infrapiriformic – inferior gluteal A,V,N, pudendal nerve and sciatic nerve

(II) Lesser sciatic foramen – Pudendal nerve, nerve and tendon of obturator internus

Image result for greater sciatic foramen

 


6. Popliteous muscle – Tibia fixed, rotates femur laterelly. Femur fixed, rotated tibia medially


7. Fascia lata:

Attatchments:

  • Superiorly – ASIS, sacrum, coccyx, iliac crest
  • Inferiorly – Bones around knee

Modifications: Iliotibial tract, saphenous opening, cribriform fascia, intermuscular septa

Functions:

  • Muscle attachments
  • Compartmentalize
  • Enclose thigh muscles – less energy used

Clinicals: Fascia lata grafts, compartment syndrome, muscular hernia if fascia cut


8. Saphenous opening – covered by cribriform fascia

Structures passing through: small saphenous vein, superficial epigastric artery, superficial external pudendal

Formed by: Cribriform fascia (roof) and falciform margin


9. Inguinal lymph nodes

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10. Iliotibial tract: from iliac crest to lateral patella and lateral condyles

Function: muscle attachment, stabilize lateral knee, maintain hyperextended knee position

Clinical: iliotibial band syndrome – lateral knee pain


11. Angle of declination

Image result for angle of declination femur

 

Image result for coxa vara

 


12. Leg compartments 

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13. Triceps surae – gastrocnemius and soleus muscle. Blood supply- sinusoidal

Tendon archilles : blood supply – water shed


14. Pes anserinus – conjoined tendons of sartorius, gracilis and semimembrenosus insert on upper medial tibia


15. Tendons from medial to lateral going through the extensor retinaculum:

  • Tom – tibialis anterior
  • Has – Extensor hallucis longus
  • A – Anterior tibial artery
  • Very – vein
  • Nice – deep peroneal nerve
  • Dog – extensor digitorum longus
  • Pet – peroneus tertius

16. Tarsal tunnel contents from medial to lateral

  • Tom – tibialis posterior
  • Dug – flexor digitorum longus
  • A – posterior tibial artery
  • Very – vein
  • Narrow – tibial nerve
  • Hole – flexor hallucis longus

Clinical: tarsal tunnel syndrome – compressed tibial nerve


17. Popliteal fossa:

Boundaries:

Image result for popliteal fossa

  • Roof – skin and fascia
  • Floor – knee joint capsule, popliteus muscle

Contents:

Image result for popliteal fossa

Clinical: Baker’s cyst (semimembranous bursa)


18. Femoral triangle:

Boundaries:

Image result for femoral triangle

  • Roof – skin and fascia
  • Floor – iliopsoas, adductor longus and pectineus

Contents:

  • Femoral ring and sheath
  • Femoral artery, genitofemoral nerve and  femoral vein (in the sheath)
  • Femoral nerve
  • Inguinal lymph nodes

Image result for femoral triangle contents

Clinicals: femoral hernia, enlarged lymph nodes


19. Femoral ring:

Image result for femoral ring contents

Formation:

  • Anteriorly – Fascia transversalis
  • Posteriorly – Fascia iliacus

Clinical: femoral hernia


20. Adductor canal

Boundaries:

Image result for adductor canal

Contents:

  • Femoral artery and vein
  • Descending genicular artery
  • Nerve to vastus medialis
  • Saphenous nerve

Clinical: Adductor canal compression syndrome (hypertrophy of muscles)


 

These are summarized notes from various sources, mainly TeachMeAnatomy and Wikipedia

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