Development of veins

Refer to sinus venosus in development of heart:

  1. Vitelline veins – drain blood from yolk sac, enter via yolk sac stalk
  2. Umbilical vein – oxygenated blood from placenta, divides into right and left branch. enters via umbilical cord
  3. Cardinal veins – body of embryo:
  • Anterior cardinal veins – drain head and neck and upper limbs
  • Posterior cardinal veins – drain lower limbs
  • Common cardinal vein – branches into anterior and posterior cardinal veins
  • Subcardinal veins – anastomose infront of aorta
  • Supracardinal veins – dorsilateral to aorta
  • Azygous cardinal veins – dorsilateral to aorta


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Development of Inferior Vena Cava:

  • Right vitelline vein
  • Intersubcardinal anastomosis
  • Right supracardinal vein
  • Iliac anastomosis

Anomalies of IVC:

  • Forms on left side instead of right due to persistent left veins mentioned above
  • Double IVC – persistence of both
  • Absent IVC – Lower body drained by azygous vein

Development of renal veins:

Right – Right metanephric vein

Left – Left metanephric vein and intersubcardinal anastomosis (since its longer than right)



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