Development of arteries

Source: Angiogenetic cells (mesodermal)

Continuation of the 2 endocardial heart tubes to form right and left primitive aorta

  • Which curve dorsally and continue as 2 dorsal aortas (dorsal to gut). Cranially are separate, caudally fuse to form a single dorsal aorta
  • And ventral to pharynx fuse – Aortic sac

The 2 dorsal aortas connect with the aortic sac via aortic arch arteries

These are 6 pairs of arteries that run in the 6 pharyngeal arches

 

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Development of arch of aorta:

  • Proximal – Aortic sac stem
  • Middle – Aortic sac left horn
  • Distal – Left 4th aortic arch, lower left dorsal aorta

Recurrent laryngeal nerve:

  • Right and left vagi descend lateral to pharynx
  • Give recurrent laryngeal nerve
  • On right side, 5th and 6th arch disappear (6th arch dorsal branch), therefore hooks around 4th aortic arch ie. subclavian artery
  • On left side, hooks around dorsal branch of 6th aortic arch ie. ductus arteriosus

Anomalies of aortic arch:

  1. Patent ductus arteriosus – failure to close, hypertrophy of left side of heart
  2. Congenital narrowing of aorta – Preductal type (above ductus arteriosus which closes) and Postductal type (below ductus arteriosus which remains open)
  3. Right sided aortic arch – Distal part of left dorsal aorta degenerates, distal part of right dorsal aorta persists
  4. Double aortic arch – both persist, leads to dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) and dyspnea (difficulty in breathing)
  5. Abnormal right subclavian artery – 4th aortic arch degenerates, therefore arises from right 7th intersegmental artery and descending aorta

Common dorsal aorta branches:

1. Ventral:

  • Coelic artery – foregut
  • Superior mesenteric artery – midgut
  • Inferior mesenteric artery – hindgut

2. Lateral (paired):

  • Middle suprarenal artery
  • Renal artery
  • Gonadal artery

3. Posterolateral (paired):

  • Posterior intercostal arteries
  • Subcostal arteries
  • Lumbar arteries

Umbilical artery:

  1. Arises from dorsal aorta
  2. Connected to 5th lumbar intersegmental artery
  3. Looses connection to dorsal aorta
  4. 5th lumbar intersegmental artery gives a branch ie. External iliac artery
  5. Continues as internal iliac artery

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Development of arteries in lower limb:

Continuation of external iliac arteryFemoral artery ⇒ descends infront of thigh ⇒ curves to join sciatic artery backwards to form Poplitial artery

Continuation of Internal iliac artery ⇒ Called sciatic artery ⇒ descends in back of lower limb ⇒ to sole of foot ⇒ degenerates to form Inferior gluteal artery, peroneal artery ETC

EIA and IIA anastomose to form anterior and posterior tibial arteries

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Development of arteries in upper limb:

7th cervical intersegmental artery ⇒ Subclavian a. ⇒ Axillary a. ⇒ Brachial a. ⇒ Ulnar and Radial a. ⇒ give superficial and deep palmer arches

NB: Brachial a. also gives another branch called anterior interosseous artery. Anterior interosseous artery is replaced by median artery which is replaced by ulnar artery

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